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Physics: New Titles - 2017-2018

This guide identifies resources for physics found in Pius XII Memorial Library and on the Web.

2017-2018 Physics Titles Added

Understanding Our Unseen Reality

"The riddles of quantum mechanics and the failure of modern physics to reach consensus on an interpretation continues to be a fascinating topic to the profession and the public alike. The elaboration and extension of the transactional interpretation by the author of this book is a timely development."Professor David MillerUniversity of SydneyThis captivating book presents a new, unified picture of the everyday world around us. It provides rational, scientific support for the idea that there may well be more to our reality than meets the eye... Accessible and engaging for readers with no prior knowledge of quantum physics, author Ruth Kastner draws on the popular transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics to explain our ' quantum reality.' Her book focuses on modern-day examples and deals with big philosophical questions as well as ideas from physics.If you have any interest in quantum physics, this book is for you -- whether you be a physics student or academic, or simply an inquisitive reader who wants to delve deeper into the reality of the world around you. Dr Ruth Kastner has received two National Science Foundation awards for the study of interpretational issues in quantum theory.

Technology Meets Research: 60 Years of Technological Achievements at Cern Illustrated with Selected Highlights

While the book is specifically aimed at providing information for the technically interested general public, more expert readers may also appreciate the broad variety of subjects presented. Ample references are given for those who wish to further explore a given topic.

Guerrilla Science

Full of drama, dedication, and humor, this book narrates the author's often frustrating experiences working as an experimental physicist in Cuba after the disintegration of the so-called socialist block. Lacking finance and infrastructure, faced with makeshift equipment, unpredictable supplies, and unreliable IT, Altshuler tells how he and his students overcame numerous challenges to make novel and interesting contributions to several fields of science. Along the way, he explains the science - from studies of ant colonies to superconductivity - either qualitatively or quantitatively, but always at a level fully understandable to an undergraduate student of natural sciences or engineering. An even wider audience, however, may skip the technical sections without missing the essence. With numerous anecdotes, photographs and the author's own delightful cartoons, the book tells a remarkable, and often amusing story of how successful science can be performed against all odds.

Quantum Physics

Around 1900, physicists started to discover particles like electrons, protons, and neutrons, and with these discoveries believed they could predict the internal behavior of the atom. However, once their predictions were compared to the results of experiments in the real world, it became clear that the principles of classical physics and mechanics were far from capable of explaining phenomena on the atomic scale. With this realization came the advent of quantum physics, one of the most important intellectual movements in human history. Today, quantum physics is everywhere: it explains how our computers work, how lasers transmit information across the Internet, and allows scientists to predict accurately the behavior of nearly every particle in nature. Its application continues to be fundamental in the investigation of the most expansive questions related to our world and the universe. However, while the field and principles of quantum physics are known to have nearly limitless applications, the fundamental reasons why this is the case are far less understood. In Quantum Physics: What Everyone Needs to Know, quantum physicist Michael G. Raymer distills the basic principles of such an abstract field, and addresses the many ways quantum physics is a key factor in today's science and beyond. The book tackles questions as broad as the meaning of quantum entanglement and as specific and timely as why governments worldwide are spending billions of dollars developing quantum technology research. Raymer's list of topics is diverse, and showcases the sheer range of questions and ideas in which quantum physics is involved. From applications like data encryption and quantum computing to principles and concepts like "quantum nonlocality" and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Quantum Physics: What Everyone Needs to Know is a wide-reaching introduction to a nearly ubiquitous scientific topic.

The Quantum Labyrinth

The story of the unlikely friendship between the two physicists who fundamentally recast the notion of time and history In 1939, Richard Feynman, a brilliant graduate of MIT, arrived in John Wheeler's Princeton office to report for duty as his teaching assistant. A lifelong friendship and enormously productive collaboration was born, despite sharp differences in personality. The soft-spoken Wheeler, though conservative in appearance, was a raging nonconformist full of wild ideas about the universe. The boisterous Feynman was a cautious physicist who believed only what could be tested. Yet they were complementary spirits. Their collaboration led to a complete rethinking of the nature of time and reality. It enabled Feynman to show how quantum reality is a combination of alternative, contradictory possibilities, and inspired Wheeler to develop his landmark concept of wormholes, portals to the future and past. Together, Feynman and Wheeler made sure that quantum physics would never be the same again.

Quantum Puzzle, the: a Critical Survey of the Evidence

In 1861, James Clerk-Maxwell published Part II of his four-part series "On physical lines of force." In it, he attempted to construct a vortex model of the magnetic field but after much effort neither he, nor other late nineteenth century physicists who followed him, managed to produce a workable theory. What survived from these attempts were Maxwell's four equations of electrodynamics together with the Lorentz force law, formulae that made no attempt to describe an underlying reality but stood only as a mathematical description of the observed phenomena. When the quantum of action was introduced by Planck in 1900 the difficulties that had faced Maxwell's generation were still unresolved. Since then theories of increasing mathematical complexity have been constructed to attempt to bring the totality of phenomena into order with little success. This work examines the problems that had been abandoned long before quantum mechanics was formulated in 1925 and argues that these issues need to be revisited before real progress in the quantum theory of the electromagnetic field can be made.

The Planet Factory

Twenty years ago, the search for planets--and life--outside the solar system was a job restricted to science fiction writers. It is now one of the most rapidly growing fields in astronomy, with thousands of these "exoplanets" discovered so far. The detection of these worlds has only been possible in the last decade, with the number of discoveries increasing enormously over the last year following the findings of the Kepler Space Telescope. These new worlds are more alien than anything in fiction. Planets larger than Jupiter with years lasting one week, planets circling the dead remains of stars, others with two suns lighting their skies or with no sun at all. These locations hint at Earth-sized worlds but with split hemispheres of perpetual day and night, waterworlds drowning under global oceans, and volcanic lava planets spewing seas of magma. The Planet Factory tells the story of exoplanets, planets orbiting stars outside of our solar system. Discover the specks of dust that circle a young star come together in a violent building project that can form colossal worlds hundreds of times the size of the Earth; the changing orbits of young planets that risk dooming the life forming on neighboring worlds or, alternatively, that can deliver the key ingredients needed to seed its beginnings. Exoplanets are one of the greatest construction schemes in the universe and they occur around nearly every star you see. Each result is an alien landscape, but is it possible that one of these could be like our own home? The Planet Factory discusses the way these planets form, their structure and features, and describes in detail the detection techniques used (there are many) before looking at what we can learn about the surface environments and planetary atmospheres, and whether this hints at the tantalizing possibility of life. An informative and entertaining read, The Planet Factory takes the reader to the cutting edge of the ongoing search for worlds like our own, and the hints of life elsewhere in the cosmos.

Classical Electromagnetism in a Nutshell

This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons. Classical Electromagnetism in a Nutshell is ideal for a yearlong graduate course and features more than 300 problems, with solutions to many of the advanced ones. Key formulas are given in both SI and Gaussian units; the book includes a discussion of how to convert between them, making it accessible to adherents of both systems. Offers a complete treatment of classical electromagnetism Emphasizes physical ideas Separates the treatment of electromagnetism in vacuum and material media Presents key formulas in both SI and Gaussian units Covers applications to other areas of physics Includes more than 300 problems

From Classical to Quantum Fields

Quantum Field Theory has become the universal language of most modern theoretical physics. This introductory textbook shows how this beautiful theory offers the correct mathematical framework to describe and understand the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. The book begins with a brief reminder of basic classical field theories, electrodynamics and general relativity, as well as their symmetry properties, and proceeds with the principles of quantisation following Feynman's path integral approach. Special care is used at every step to illustrate thecorrect mathematical formulation of the underlying assumptions. Gauge theories and the problems encountered in their quantisation are discussed in detail. The last chapters contain a full description of the Standard Model of particle physics and the attempts to go beyond it, such as grand unifiedtheories and supersymmetry. Written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book could also serve as a reference for active researchers in the field.

Bose-Einstein Condensation and Superfluidity

Ultracold atomic gases is a rapidly developing area of physics that attracts many young researchers around the world. Written by world renowned experts in the field, this book gives a comprehensive overview of exciting developments in Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity from a theoretical perspective. The authors also make sense of key experiments from the past twenty years with a special focus on the physics of ultracold atomic gases. These systems are characterized by a rich variety of features which make them similar to other important systems of condensed matter physics (like superconductors and superfluids). At the same time they exhibit very peculiar properties which are the result of their gaseous nature, the possibility of trapping in a variety of low dimensional and periodical configurations, and of manipulating the two-body interaction. The book presents a systematic theoretical description based on the most successful many-body approaches applied both to bosons and fermions, at equilibrium and out of equilibrium, at zero as well as at finite temperature. Both theorists and experimentalists will benefit from the book, which is mainly addressed to beginners in the field (master students, PhD students, young postdocs), but also to more experienced researchers who can find in the book novel inspirations and motivations as well as new insightful connections. Building on the authors' first book, Bose-Einstein Condensation (Oxford University Press, 2003), this text offers a more systematic description of Fermi gases, quantum mixtures, low dimensional systems and dipolar gases. It also gives further emphasis on the peculiar phenomenon of superfluidity and its key role in many observable properties of these ultracold quantum gases.

Theoretical Molecular Biophysics

This book gives an introduction to molecular biophysics. It starts from material properties at equilibrium related to polymers, dielectrics and membranes. Electronic spectra are developed for the understanding of elementary dynamic processes in photosynthesis including proton transfer and dynamics of molecular motors. Since the molecular structures of functional groups of bio-systems were resolved, it has become feasible to develop a theory based on the quantum theory and statistical physics with emphasis on the specifics of the high complexity of bio-systems. This introduction to molecular aspects of the field focuses on solvable models. Elementary biological processes provide as special challenge the presence of partial disorder in the structure which does not destroy the basic reproducibility of the processes. Apparently the elementary molecular processes are organized in a way to optimize the efficiency. Learning from nature by means exploring the relation between structure and function may even help to build better artificial solar cells. The reader is exposed to basic concepts in modern biophysics, such as entropic forces, phase separation, potential of mean force, electron and proton transfer, heterogeneous reactions, coherent and incoherent energy transfer as well as molecular motors. Basic knowledge in classical and Quantum mechanics, electrostatics and statistical physics is desirable. Simplified models are presented which can be solved in limited cases analytically from the guiding lines to generate the basis for a fundamental understanding of the more complex biophysical systems. Chapters close with challenging problems whose solutions are provided at the end of the book to complete the pedagogical treatment in the book. To the second edition several new chapters were added. The medium polarization is treated self-consistently using basic elements of polaron theory and more advanced nonlinear Schr#65533;dinger equations to describe the dynamics of solvation. Ion transport through a membrane was extended by the discussion of cooperative effects. Intramolecular transitions are now discussed in the new edition in much more detail, including also radiationless transitions. Very recent developments in spectroscopy are included, especially two-dimensional and hole-burning spectroscopy. The discussion of charge transfer processes was extended by including recent results of hole transfer in DNA in connection with the super-exchange mechanism. The chapter on molecular motors was rewritten to include the most recent developments of new models. The book is a useful text for students and researchers wanting to go through the mathematical derivations in the theories presented. This book attracts a group of applied mathematically oriented students and scholars to the exciting field of molecular biophysics.

Before Time Began

What is the origin of the universe? What was there before the universe appeared? We are currently witnessing a second Copernican revolution: neither our Earth and Sun, nor our galaxy, nor even our universe, are the end of all things. Beyond our world, in an endless multiverse, are innumerable other universes, coming and going, like ours or different. Fourteen billion years ago, one of the many bubbles constantly appearing and vanishing in the multiverse exploded to form our universe.  The energy liberated in the explosion provided the basis for all the matter our universe now contains. But how could this hot, primordial plasma eventually produce the complex structure of our present world? Does not order eventually always lead to disorder, to an increase of entropy? Modern cosmology is beginning to find out how it all came about and where it all might lead. Before Time Began tells that story.

The Cellular Automaton Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft. Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the old hidden variable ideas, but now in a much more systematic way than usual. In this, quantum mechanics is viewed as a tool rather than a theory. The author gives examples of models that are classical in essence, but can be analysed by the use of quantum techniques, and argues that even the Standard Model, together with gravitational interactions, might be viewed as a quantum mechanical approach to analysing a system that could be classical at its core. He shows how this approach, even though it is based on hidden variables, can be plausibly reconciled with Bell's theorem, and how the usual objections voiced against the idea of 'superdeterminism' can be overcome, at least in principle. This framework elegantly explains - and automatically cures - the problems of the wave function collapse and the measurement problem. Even the existence of an "arrow of time" can perhaps be explained in a more elegant way than usual. As well as reviewing the author's earlier work in the field, the book also contains many new observations and calculations. It provides stimulating reading for all physicists working on the foundations of quantum theory.

Modern Classical Physics

This first-year, graduate-level text and reference book covers the fundamental concepts and twenty-first-century applications of six major areas of classical physics that every masters- or PhD-level physicist should be exposed to, but often isn't: statistical physics, optics (waves of all sorts), elastodynamics, fluid mechanics, plasma physics, and special and general relativity and cosmology. Growing out of a full-year course that the eminent researchers Kip Thorne and Roger Blandford taught at Caltech for almost three decades, this book is designed to broaden the training of physicists. Its six main topical sections are also designed so they can be used in separate courses, and the book provides an invaluable reference for researchers. Presents all the major fields of classical physics except three prerequisites: classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and elementary thermodynamics Elucidates the interconnections between diverse fields and explains their shared concepts and tools Focuses on fundamental concepts and modern, real-world applications Takes applications from fundamental, experimental, and applied physics; astrophysics and cosmology; geophysics, oceanography, and meteorology; biophysics and chemical physics; engineering and optical science and technology; and information science and technology Emphasizes the quantum roots of classical physics and how to use quantum techniques to elucidate classical concepts or simplify classical calculations Features hundreds of color figures, some five hundred exercises, extensive cross-references, and a detailed index An online illustration package is available to professors

Storm in a Teacup

Take a look up at the stars on a clear night and you get a sense that the universe is vast and untouchable, full of mysteries beyond comprehension. But did you know that the key to unveiling the secrets of the cosmos is as close as the nearest toaster? Our home here on Earth is messy, mutable, and full of humdrum things that we touch and modify without much thought every day. But these familiar surroundings are just the place to look if you're interested in what makes the universe tick. In Storm in a Teacup, Helen Czerski provides the tools to alter the way we see everything around us by linking ordinary objects and occurrences, like popcorn popping, coffee stains, and fridge magnets, to big ideas like climate change, the energy crisis, or innovative medical testing. She guides us through the principles of gases ("Explosions in the kitchen are generally considered a bad idea. But just occasionally a small one can produce something delicious"); gravity (drop some raisins in a bottle of carbonated lemonade and watch the whoosh of bubbles and the dancing raisins at the bottom bumping into each other); size (Czerski explains the action of the water molecules that cause the crime-scene stain left by a puddle of dried coffee); and time (why it takes so long for ketchup to come out of a bottle). Along the way, she provides answers to vexing questions: How does water travel from the roots of a redwood tree to its crown? How do ducks keep their feet warm when walking on ice? Why does milk, when added to tea, look like billowing storm clouds? In an engaging voice at once warm and witty, Czerski shares her stunning breadth of knowledge to lift the veil of familiarity from the ordinary. You may never look at your toaster the same way.

From Photon to Neuron - Light, Imaging, Vision

A richly illustrated undergraduate textbook on the physics and biology of light Students in the physical and life sciences, and in engineering, need to know about the physics and biology of light. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that an understanding of the quantum nature of light is essential, both for the latest imaging technologies and to advance our knowledge of fundamental life processes, such as photosynthesis and human vision. From Photon to Neuron provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the physics of light and offers a unified view of a broad range of optical and biological phenomena. Along the way, this richly illustrated textbook builds the necessary background in neuroscience, photochemistry, and other disciplines, with applications to optogenetics, superresolution microscopy, the single-photon response of individual photoreceptor cells, and more. With its integrated approach, From Photon to Neuron can be used as the basis for interdisciplinary courses in physics, biophysics, sensory neuroscience, biophotonics, bioengineering, or nanotechnology. The goal is always for students to gain the fluency needed to derive every result for themselves, so the book includes a wealth of exercises, including many that guide students to create computer-based solutions. Supplementary online materials include real experimental data to use with the exercises. Assumes familiarity with first-year undergraduate physics and the corresponding math Overlaps the goals of the MCAT, which now includes data-based and statistical reasoning Advanced chapters and sections also make the book suitable for graduate courses An Instructor's Guide and illustration package is available to professors

Rays, Waves and Scattering - Topics in Classical Mathematical

This one-of-a-kind book presents many of the mathematical concepts, structures, and techniques used in the study of rays, waves, and scattering. Panoramic in scope, it includes discussions of how ocean waves are refracted around islands and underwater ridges, how seismic waves are refracted in the earth's interior, how atmospheric waves are scattered by mountains and ridges, how the scattering of light waves produces the blue sky, and meteorological phenomena such as rainbows and coronas. Rays, Waves, and Scattering is a valuable resource for practitioners, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates in applied mathematics, theoretical physics, and engineering. Bridging the gap between advanced treatments of the subject written for specialists and less mathematical books aimed at beginners, this unique mathematical compendium features problems and exercises throughout that are geared to various levels of sophistication, covering everything from Ptolemy's theorem to Airy integrals (as well as more technical material), and several informative appendixes. Provides a panoramic look at wave motion in many different contexts Features problems and exercises throughout Includes numerous appendixes, some on topics not often covered An ideal reference book for practitioners Can also serve as a supplemental text in classical applied mathematics, particularly wave theory and mathematical methods in physics and engineering Accessible to anyone with a strong background in ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, and functions of a complex variable

Methods in Molecular Biophysics

Current techniques for studying biological macromolecules and their interactions are based on the application of physical methods, ranging from classical thermodynamics to more recently developed techniques for the detection and manipulation of single molecules. Reflecting the advances made in biophysics research over the past decade, and now including a new section on medical imaging, this new edition describes the physical methods used in modern biology. All key techniques are covered, including mass spectrometry, hydrodynamics, microscopy and imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance. Each method is explained in detail using examples of real-world applications. Short asides are provided throughout to ensure that explanations are accessible to life scientists, physicists and those with medical backgrounds. The book remains an unparalleled and comprehensive resource for graduate students of biophysics and medical physics in science and medical schools, as well as for research scientists looking for an introduction to techniques from across this interdisciplinary field.

Fractals in Molecular Biophysics

Historically, science has sought to reduce complex problems to their simplest components, but more recently it has recognized the merit of studying complex phenomena in situ. Fractal geometry is one such appealing approach, and this book discusses its application to complex problems inmolecular biophysics. The book provides a detailed, unified treatment of fractal aspects of protein and structure dynamics, fractal reaction kinetics in biochemical systems, sequence correlations in DNA and proteins, and descriptors of chaos in enzymatic systems. In an area that has been slow toacknowledge the use of fractals, this is an important addition to the literature, offering a glimpse of the wealth of possible applications to complex problems.

Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials

The second, updated edition of this essential reference book provides a wealth of detail on a wide range of electronic and photonic materials, starting from fundamentals and building up to advanced topics and applications. Its extensive coverage, with clear illustrations and applications, carefully selected chapter sequencing and logical flow, makes it very different from other electronic materials handbooks. It has been written by professionals in the field and instructors who teach the subject at a university or in corporate laboratories. The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, second edition, includes practical applications used as examples, details of experimental techniques, useful tables that summarize equations, and, most importantly, properties of various materials, as well as an extensive glossary. Along with significant updates to the content and the references, the second edition includes a number of new chapters such as those covering novel materials and selected applications. This handbook is a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers and practicing professionals working in the area of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic materials.

Experiencing Time

Our engagement with time is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. We are aware of time on many scales, from the briefest flicker of change to the way our lives unfold over many years. But to what extent does this encounter reveal the true nature of temporal reality? To the extent that temporalreality is as it seems, how do we come to be aware of it? And to the extent that temporal reality is not as it seems, why does it seem that way? These are the central questions addressed by Simon Prosser in Experiencing Time.These questions take on a particular importance in philosophy for two reasons. Firstly, there is a view concerning the metaphysics of time, known as the B-theory of time, according to which the apparently dynamic quality of change, the special status of the present, and even the passage of time areall illusions. Instead, the world is a four-dimensional space-time block, lacking any of the apparent dynamic features of time. If the B-theory is correct, as the book argues, then it must be explained why our experiences seem to tell us otherwise. Secondly, experiences of temporal features such aschanges, rates and durations are of independent interest because of certain puzzles that they raise, the solutions to which may shed light on broader issues in the philosophy of mind.

Nonlocal Gravity

Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality - in the sense of history dependence - is introduced intorelativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theoryof gravitation has recently been developed.A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies andbeyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes weaker as the universe expands.The implications of nonlocal gravity are explored in this book for gravitational lensing, gravitational radiation, the gravitational physics of the Solar System and the internal dynamics of nearby galaxies, as well as clusters of galaxies. This approach is extended to nonlocal Newtonian cosmology,where the attraction of gravity fades with the expansion of the universe. Thus far, scientists have only compared some of the consequences of nonlocal gravity with astronomical observations.

The Origin of Mass

The discovery of a new elementary particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 made headlines in world media. Since we already know of a large number of elementary particles, why did this latest discovery generate so much excitement? This small book reveals that this particle providesthe key to understanding one of the most extraordinary phenomena which occurred in the early Universe. It introduces the mechanism that made possible, within tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang, the generation of massive particles.The Origin of Mass is a guided tour of cosmic evolution, from the Big Bang to the elementary particles we study in our accelerators today. The guiding principle of this book is a concept of symmetry which, in a profound and fascinating way, seems to determine the structure of the Universe.

The Paradoxes of Time Travel

Ryan Wasserman presents a wide-ranging exploration of puzzles raised by the possibility of time travel, including the grandfather paradox, the bootstrapping paradox, and the twin paradox of special relativity. He draws out their implications for our understanding of time, tense, freedom,fatalism, causation, counterfactuals, laws of nature, persistence, change, and mereology. The Paradoxes of Time Travel is written in an accessible style, and filled with entertaining examples from physics, science fiction, and popular culture.

Quantum Fields

This book introduces quantum field theory, together with its most important applications to cosmology and astroparticle physics, in a coherent framework. The path integral approach is employed right from the start, and the use of Green functions and generating functionals is illustrated firstin quantum mechanics and then in scalar field theory. Massless spin one and two fields are discussed on an equal footing, and gravity is presented as a gauge theory in close analogy with the Yang-Mills case. Concepts relevant to modern research such as helicity methods, effective theories,decoupling, or the stability of the electroweak vacuum are introduced. Various applications such as topological defects, dark matter, baryogenesis, processes in external gravitational fields, inflation and black holes help students to bridge the gap between undergraduate courses and the researchliterature.

Surfing the Quantum World

The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the PeriodicTable of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, whywhite dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrödinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.

Cosmology for the Curious

This book is a gentle introduction for all those wishing to learn about modern views of the cosmos. Our universe originated in a great explosion - the big bang. For nearly a century cosmologists have studied the aftermath of this explosion: how the universe expanded and cooled down, and how galaxies were gradually assembled by gravity. The nature of the bang itself has come into focus only relatively recently. It is the subject of the theory of cosmic inflation, which was developed in the last few decades and has led to a radically new global view of the universe. Students and other interested readers will find here a non-technical but conceptually rigorous account of modern cosmological ideas - describing what we know, and how we know it. One of the book's central themes is the scientific quest to find answers to the ultimate cosmic questions: Is the universe finite or infinite? Has it existed forever? If not, when and how did it come into being? Will it ever end? The book is based on the undergraduate course taught by Alex Vilenkin at Tufts University. It assumes no prior knowledge of physics or mathematics beyond elementary high school math. The necessary physics background is introduced as it is required. Each chapter includes a list of questions and exercises of varying degree of difficulty.   

What Is Real?

The untold story of the heretical thinkers who dared to question the nature of our quantum universe Every physicist agrees quantum mechanics is among humanity's finest scientific achievements. But ask what it means, and the result will be a brawl. For a century, most physicists have followed Niels Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation and dismissed questions about the reality underlying quantum physics as meaningless. A mishmash of solipsism and poor reasoning, Copenhagen endured, as Bohr's students vigorously protected his legacy, and the physics community favored practical experiments over philosophical arguments. As a result, questioning the status quo long meant professional ruin. And yet, from the 1920s to today, physicists like John Bell, David Bohm, and Hugh Everett persisted in seeking the true meaning of quantum mechanics. What Is Real? is the gripping story of this battle of ideas and the courageous scientists who dared to stand up for truth.

Elementary Particle Physics in a Nutshell

The new experiments underway at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland may significantly change our understanding of elementary particle physics and, indeed, the universe. This textbook provides a cutting-edge introduction to the field, preparing first-year graduate students and advanced undergraduates to understand and work in LHC physics at the dawn of what promises to be an era of experimental and theoretical breakthroughs. Christopher Tully, an active participant in the work at the LHC, explains some of the most recent experiments in the field. But this book, which emerged from a course at Princeton University, also provides a comprehensive understanding of the subject. It explains every elementary particle physics process--whether it concerns nonaccelerator experiments, particle astrophysics, or the description of the early universe--as a gauge interaction coupled to the known building blocks of matter. Designed for a one-semester course that is complementary to a course in quantum field theory, the book gives special attention to high-energy collider physics, and includes a detailed discussion of the state of the search for the Higgs boson. Introduces elementary particle processes relevant to astrophysics, collider physics, and the physics of the early universe Covers experimental methods, detectors, and measurements Features a detailed discussion of the Higgs boson search Includes many challenging exercises Professors: A supplementary Instructor's Manual which provides solutions for Chapters 1-3 of the textbook, is available as a PDF. It is restricted to teachers using the text in courses. To obtain a copy, please email your request to: Ingrid_Gnerlich "at"

Group Theory in a Nutshell for Physicists

Although group theory is a mathematical subject, it is indispensable to many areas of modern theoretical physics, from atomic physics to condensed matter physics, particle physics to string theory. In particular, it is essential for an understanding of the fundamental forces. Yet until now, what has been missing is a modern, accessible, and self-contained textbook on the subject written especially for physicists. Group Theory in a Nutshell for Physicists fills this gap, providing a user-friendly and classroom-tested text that focuses on those aspects of group theory physicists most need to know. From the basic intuitive notion of a group, A. Zee takes readers all the way up to how theories based on gauge groups could unify three of the four fundamental forces. He also includes a concise review of the linear algebra needed for group theory, making the book ideal for self-study. Provides physicists with a modern and accessible introduction to group theory Covers applications to various areas of physics, including field theory, particle physics, relativity, and much more Topics include finite group and character tables; real, pseudoreal, and complex representations; Weyl, Dirac, and Majorana equations; the expanding universe and group theory; grand unification; and much more The essential textbook for students and an invaluable resource for researchers Features a brief, self-contained treatment of linear algebra An online illustration package is available to professors Solutions manual (available only to professors)

Concepts in Quantum Mechanics

Taking a conceptual approach to the subject, Concepts in Quantum Mechanicsprovides complete coverage of both basic and advanced topics. Following in the footsteps of Dirac's classic work Principles of Quantum Mechanics, it explains all themes from first principles. The authors present alternative ways of representing the state of a physical system, outline the mathematical connection between the representatives of the same state in different representations, and highlight the connection between Dirac brackets and their integral forms in the coordinate and momentum representations. They also logically develop the equations of motion in Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures. In addition, the book covers motion in the presence of potential steps and wells, bound state problems, symmetries and their consequences, the role of angular momentum in quantum mechanics, approximation methods, time-dependent perturbation methods, and second quantization. Written by authoritative professors who have taught quantum mechanics at the graduate level for a combined forty years, this textbook provides students with a strong foundation in quantum mechanics. After reading the book, students will be ready to take on quantum field theory.

A Modern Introduction to Quantum Field Theory

The importance and the beauty of modern quantum field theory resides in the power and variety of its methods and ideas, which find application in domains as different as particle physics, cosmology, condensed matter, statistical mechanics and critical phenomena. This book introduces the readerto the modern developments, assuming no previous knowledge of quantum field theory. Along with standard topics like Feynman diagrams, the book discusses effective lagrangians, renormalization group equations, the path integral formulation, spontaneous symmetry breaking and non-abelian gaugetheories. The inclusion of more advanced topics will also make this a most useful book for graduate students and researchers.

Advanced Mechanics

Classical Mechanics is the oldest and best understood part of physics. This does not mean that it is cast in marble yet, a museum piece to be admired from a distance. Instead, mechanics continues to be an active area of research by physicists and mathematicians. Every few years, we need tore-evaluate the purpose of learning mechanics and look at old material in the light of modern developments.Once you have learned basic mechanics (Newton's laws, the solution of the Kepler problem) and quantum mechanics (the Schrodinger equation, hydrogen atom) it is time to go back and relearn classical mechanics in greater depth. It is the intent of this book to take you through the ancient (theoriginal meaning of "classical") parts of the subject quickly: the ideas started by Euler and ending roughly with Poincare. We then take up the developments of twentieth century physics that have largely to do with chaos and discrete time evolution (the basis of numerical solutions). Along the way you will learn about elliptic functions and their connection to the Arithmetico-Geometric-Mean; Einstein's calculation of the perihelion shift of Mercury; that spin is really a classical phenomenon; how Hamilton came very close to guessing wave mechanics when he developed a unifiedtheory of optics and mechanics; how Riemannian geometry is useful to understand the impossibility of long range weather prediction; why the maximum of the potential is a stable point of equilibrium in certain situations; the similarity of the orbits of particles in atomic traps and of the Trojanasteroids; about Julia sets and the Mandelblot; what Feigenbaum constants are and how Newton's iterations help establish the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem. By the end you should be ready to absorb modern research in mechanics.

Quantum Optics

Quantum optics, i.e. the interaction of individual photons with matter, began with the discoveries of Planck and Einstein, but in recent years it has expanded beyond pure physics to become an important driving force for technological innovation. This book serves the broader readership growingout of this development by starting with an elementary description of the underlying physics and then building up a more advanced treatment. The reader is led from the quantum theory of the simple harmonic oscillator to the application of entangled states to quantum information processing. An equally important feature of the text is a strong emphasis on experimental methods. Primary photon detection, heterodyne and homodyne techniques, spontaneous down-conversion, and quantum tomography are discussed, together with important experiments. These experimental and theoreticalconsiderations come together in the chapters describing quantum cryptography, quantum communications, and quantum computing.

Elementary Biophysics

This is an introductory text on Biophysics meant for undergraduate students of our universities and technical institutions. The first part deals with organ systems and describes the principles of physics in the processes of locomotion, blood and fluid flow, respiration, audition and vision. The second part deals with cellular and molecular biophysics and covers, in depth, molecular forces and structure of bio molecules, dynamics of biomembranes, nearequilibrium thermodynamics, photosynthesis and cellular respiration, nerve excitation, etc. In the second edition, we have further added a discussion on nano-bio-machines and on medical imaging (CT-SCAN and MRI). The book is designed in such a way that it can be used by both Mathematics and Biology groups. NEW TO THE SECOND EDITION: Chapters on: * Physics of Nano-biomachines * Medical Imaging

Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Authored by an acclaimed teacher of quantum physics and philosophy, this textbook pays special attention to the aspects that many courses sweep under the carpet. Traditional courses in quantum mechanics teach students how to use the quantum formalism to make calculations. But even the best students - indeed, especially the best students - emerge rather confused about what, exactly, the theory says is going on, physically, in microscopic systems. This supplementary textbook is designed to help such students understand that they are not alone in their confusions (luminaries such as Albert Einstein, Erwin Schroedinger, and John Stewart Bell having shared them), to sharpen their understanding of the most important difficulties associated with interpreting quantum theory in a realistic manner, and to introduce them to the most promising attempts to formulate the theory in a way that is physically clear and coherent. The text is accessible to students with at least one semester of prior exposure to quantum (or "modern") physics and includes over a hundred engaging end-of-chapter "Projects" that make the book suitable for either a traditional classroom or for self-study.